Senator CHRISTOPHER J. CONNORS
District 9 (Atlantic, Burlington and Ocean)
Senator ANTHONY R. BUCCO
District 25 (Morris and Somerset)
Creates offense of financial exploitation of the elderly.
CURRENT VERSION OF TEXT
An Act creating the offense of financial exploitation of the elderly and amending N.J.S.2C:20-1 and N.J.S.2C:20-2 and supplementing chapter 20 of Title 2C of the New Jersey Statutes.
Be It Enacted by the Senate and General Assembly of the State of New Jersey:
1. N.J.S.2C:20-1 is amended to read as follows:
2C:20-1. Definitions. In chapters 20 and 21, unless a different meaning plainly is required:
a. "Deprive" means: (1) to withhold or cause to be withheld property of another permanently or for so extended a period as to appropriate a substantial portion of its economic value, or with purpose to restore only upon payment of reward or other compensation; or (2) to dispose or cause disposal of the property so as to make it unlikely that the owner will recover it.
b. "Fiduciary" means an executor, general administrator of an intestate, administrator with the will annexed, substituted administrator, guardian, substituted guardian, trustee under any trust, express, implied, resulting or constructive, substituted trustee, executor, conservator, curator, receiver, trustee in bankruptcy, assignee for the benefit of creditors, partner, agent or officer of a corporation, public or private, temporary administrator, administrator, administrator pendente lite, administrator ad prosequendum, administrator ad litem or other person acting in a similar capacity.
c. "Financial institution" means a bank, insurance company, credit union, savings and loan association, investment trust or other organization held out to the public as a place of deposit of funds or medium of savings or collective investment.
d. "Government" means the United States, any state, county, municipality, or other political unit, or any department, agency or subdivision of any of the foregoing, or any corporation or other association carrying out the functions of government.
e. "Movable property" means property the location of which can be changed, including things growing on, affixed to, or found in land, and documents, although the rights represented thereby have no physical location. "Immovable property" is all other property.
f. "Obtain" means: (1) in relation to property, to bring about a transfer or purported transfer of a legal interest in the property, whether to the obtainer or another; or (2) in relation to labor or service, to secure performance thereof.
g. "Property" means anything of value, including real estate, tangible and intangible personal property, trade secrets, contract rights, choses in action and other interests in or claims to wealth,
admission or transportation tickets, captured or domestic animals, food and drink, electric, gas, steam or other power, financial instruments, information, data, and computer software, in either human readable or computer readable form, copies or originals.
h. "Property of another" includes property in which any person other than the actor has an interest which the actor is not privileged to infringe, regardless of the fact that the actor also has an interest in the property and regardless of the fact that the other person might be precluded from civil recovery because the property was used in an unlawful transaction or was subject to forfeiture as contraband. Property in possession of the actor shall not be deemed property of another who has only a security interest therein, even if legal title is in the creditor pursuant to a conditional sales contract or other security agreement.
i. "Trade secret" means the whole or any portion or phase of any scientific or technical information, design, process, procedure, formula or improvement which is secret and of value. A trade secret shall be presumed to be secret when the owner thereof takes measures to prevent it from becoming available to persons other than those selected by the owner to have access thereto for limited purposes.
j. "Dealer in property" means a person who buys and sells property as a business.
k. "Traffic" means:
(1) To sell, transfer, distribute, dispense or otherwise dispose of property to another person; or
(2) To buy, receive, possess, or obtain control of or use property, with intent to sell, transfer, distribute, dispense or otherwise dispose of such property to another person.
l. "Broken succession of title" means lack of regular documents of purchase and transfer by any seller except the manufacturer of the subject property, or possession of documents of purchase and transfer by any buyer without corresponding documents of sale and transfer in possession of seller, or possession of documents of sale and transfer by seller without corresponding documents of purchase and transfer in possession of any buyer.
m. "Person" includes any individual or entity or enterprise, as defined herein, holding or capable of holding a legal or beneficial interest in property.
n. "Anything of value" means any direct or indirect gain or advantage to any person.
o. "Interest in property which has been stolen" means title or right of possession to such property.
p. "Stolen property" means property that has been the subject of any unlawful taking.
q. "Enterprise" includes any individual, sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation, business trust, association, or other legal entity, and any union or group of individuals associated in fact, although not a legal entity, and it includes illicit as well as licit enterprises and governmental as well as other entities.
r. "Attorney General" includes the Attorney General of New Jersey, his assistants and deputies. The term shall also include a county prosecutor or his designated assistant prosecutor, if a county prosecutor is expressly authorized in writing by the Attorney General to carry out the powers conferred on the Attorney General by this chapter.
s. "Access device" means property consisting of any telephone calling card number, credit card number, account number, mobile identification number, electronic serial number, personal identification number, or any other data intended to control or limit access to telecommunications or other computer networks in either human readable or computer readable form, either copy or original, that can be used to obtain telephone service. Access device also means property consisting of a card, code or other means of access to an account held by a financial institution, or any combination thereof, that may be used by the account holder for the purpose of initiating electronic fund transfers.
t. "Defaced access device" means any access device, in either human readable or computer readable form, either copy or original, which has been removed, erased, defaced, altered, destroyed, covered or otherwise changed in any manner from its original configuration.
u. "Domestic companion animal" means any animal commonly referred to as a pet or one that has been bought, bred, raised or otherwise acquired, in accordance with local ordinances and State and federal law for the primary purpose of providing companionship to the owner, rather than for business or agricultural purposes.
v. "Personal identifying information" means any name, number or other information that may be used, alone or in conjunction with any other information, to identify a specific individual and includes, but is not limited to, the name, address, telephone number, date of birth, social security number, official State issued identification number, employer or taxpayer number, place of employment, employee identification number, demand deposit account number, savings account number, credit card number, mother's maiden name, unique biometric data, such as fingerprint, voice print, retina or iris image or other unique physical representation, or unique electronic identification number, address or routing code of the individual.
w. "Elderly" means any person who is 60 years of age or older and is suffering from a disease or infirmity associated with advanced age or suffers from a mental disease, defect or condition which renders the person incapable of deciding whether to give or withhold consent to taking, obtaining or withholding of his property.
x. "Person in a position of trust"means a person who:
(a) is the parent, spouse, adult child or other relative by blood or affinity of an elderly person; or
(b) is a joint tenant or tenant in common with an elderly person; or
(c) has a fiduciary obligation to an elderly person; or
(d) receives monetary or other valuable consideration for providing care for the elderly person ; or
(e) lives with or provides some component of home care services on a continuing basis to the elderly person including, but not limited to, a neighbor or friend who does not provide such services on a compensated basis but has access to the elderly person based on such relationship.
(cf: P.L. 2004, c.11)
2. N.J.S.2C:20-2 is amended to read as follows:
2C:20-2 Consolidation of Theft Offenses; Grading; Provisions Applicable to Theft Generally.
2C:20-2. a. Consolidation of Theft and Computer Criminal Activity Offenses. Conduct denominated theft or computer criminal activity in this chapter constitutes a single offense, but each episode or transaction may be the subject of a separate prosecution and conviction. A charge of theft or computer criminal activity may be supported by evidence that it was committed in any manner that would be theft or computer criminal activity under this chapter, notwithstanding the specification of a different manner in the indictment or accusation, subject only to the power of the court to ensure fair trial by granting a bill of particulars, discovery, a continuance, or other appropriate relief where the conduct of the defense would be prejudiced by lack of fair notice or by surprise.
b. Grading of theft offenses.
(1) Theft constitutes a crime of the second degree if:
(a) The amount involved is $75,000.00 or more;
(b) The property is taken by extortion;
(c) The property stolen is a controlled dangerous substance or controlled substance analog as defined in N.J.S.2C:35-2 and the quantity is in excess of one kilogram;
(d) The property stolen is a person's benefits under federal or State law, or from any other source, which the Department of Human Services or an agency acting on its behalf has budgeted for the person's health care and the amount involved is $75,000.00 or more; or
(e) The property stolen is human remains or any part thereof; except that, if the human remains are stolen by deception or falsification of a document by which a gift of all or part of a human body may be made pursuant to P.L.2008, c.50 (C.26:6-77 et al.), the theft constitutes a crime of the first degree.
(2) Theft constitutes a crime of the third degree if:
(a) The amount involved exceeds $500.00 but is less than $75,000.00;
(b) The property stolen is a firearm, motor vehicle, vessel, boat, horse, domestic companion animal or airplane;
(c) The property stolen is a controlled dangerous substance or controlled substance analog as defined in N.J.S.2C:35-2 and the amount involved is less than $75,000.00 or is undetermined and the quantity is one kilogram or less;
(d) It is from the person of the victim;
(e) It is in breach of an obligation by a person in his capacity as a fiduciary;
(f) It is by threat not amounting to extortion;
(g) It is of a public record, writing or instrument kept, filed or deposited according to law with or in the keeping of any public office or public servant;
(h) The property stolen is a person's benefits under federal or State law, or from any other source, which the Department of Human Services or an agency acting on its behalf has budgeted for the person's health care and the amount involved is less than $75,000.00;
(i) The property stolen is any real or personal property related to, necessary for, or derived from research, regardless of value, including, but not limited to, any sample, specimens and components thereof, research subject, including any warm-blooded or cold-blooded animals being used for research or intended for use in research, supplies, records, data or test results, prototypes or equipment, as well as any proprietary information or other type of information related to research;
(j) The property stolen is a New Jersey Prescription Blank as referred to in R.S.45:14-14;
(k) The property stolen consists of an access device or a defaced access device; or
(l) The property stolen consists of anhydrous ammonia and the actor intends it to be used to manufacture methamphetamine.
(3) Theft constitutes a crime of the fourth degree if the amount involved is at least $200.00 but does not exceed $500.00; except that if the theft involved financial exploitation of the elderly pursuant to section 3 of P.L. , c. (C. ) (now pending before the Legislature as this bill), the theft constitutes a crime of the third degree.
(4) Theft constitutes a disorderly persons offense if:
(a) The amount involved was less than $200.00; except that if the theft involved financial exploitation of the elderly pursuant to section 3 of P.L. , c. (C. ) (now pending before the Legislature as this bill), the theft constitutes a crime of the third degree.; or
(b) The property stolen is an electronic vehicle identification system transponder.
(5) The amount involved in a theft or computer criminal activity shall be determined by the trier of fact. The amount shall include, but shall not be limited to, the amount of any State tax avoided, evaded or otherwise unpaid, improperly retained or disposed of. Amounts involved in thefts or computer criminal activities committed pursuant to one scheme or course of conduct, whether from the same person or several persons, may be aggregated in determining the grade of the offense.
c. Claim of right. It is an affirmative defense to prosecution for theft that the actor:
(1) Was unaware that the property or service was that of another;
(2) Acted under an honest claim of right to the property or service involved or that he had a right to acquire or dispose of it as he did; or
(3) Took property exposed for sale, intending to purchase and pay for it promptly, or reasonably believing that the owner, if present, would have consented.
d. Theft from spouse. It is no defense that theft or computer criminal activity was from or committed against the actor's spouse, except that misappropriation of household and personal effects, or other property normally accessible to both spouses, is theft or computer criminal activity only if it occurs after the parties have ceased living together.
(cf: P.L. 2011, c.1, s.1)
3. (New section). Financial exploitation of the elderly.
a. A person obtains property by financial exploitation of the elderly when, being a person in a position of trust, he compels or induces an elderly person to deliver such property to him or to a third person by means of fraud, false promise, extortion or intimidation.
b. No provision of this paragraph shall be deemed to impose criminal liability upon any person who in good faith seeks to assist an elderly person in the management of his property, but through no fault of such person is unable to assist the elderly person.
c. In any prosecution for theft committed by financial exploitation of the elderly, it is an affirmative defense that the defendant did not know, or could not have known, the facts or conditions which render the person an elderly person as defined in subsection w. of N.J.S. 2C:20-1.
4. This act shall take effect immediately.
This bill creates the offense of Financial Exploitation of the Elderly. Under the bill, a person obtains property by financial exploitation of the elderly when, being a person in a position of trust, he compels or induces an elderly person to deliver such property to him or to a third person by means of fraud, false promise, extortion or intimidation. "Elderly person" is defined as any person who is 60 years of age or older and is suffering from a disease or infirmity associated with advanced age or who suffers from a mental disease, defect or condition which renders the person incapable of deciding whether to give or withhold consent to taking, obtaining or withholding of his or her property.
A "person in a position of trust" means a person who:
(a) is the parent, spouse, adult child or other relative by blood or affinity of an elderly person; or (b) is a joint tenant or tenant in common with an elderly person; or (c) has a fiduciary obligation to an elderly person; or (d) receives monetary or other valuable consideration for providing care for the elderly person ; or (e) lives with or provides some component of home care services on a continuing basis to the elderly person including, but not limited to, a neighbor or friend who does not provide such services but has access to the elderly person based on such relationship. The offense is graded as a crime of the third degree punishable by up to five years imprisonment, a fine of up to $15,000, or both when the amount involved is at least $200.00 but does not exceed $500.00. Ordinarily thefts of this amount are graded as crimes of the fourth degree. The bill also upgrades theft when the amount is less than $200.00 to a crime of the fourth degree from a disorderly persons offense.
Theft from an elderly person when the amount involved exceeds $500.00 but is less than $75,000.00 continues to be a crime of the third degree.